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    Incubator care الحاضنه

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    تاريخ التسجيل : 21/03/2011
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    Incubator care الحاضنه

    مُساهمة  سفير الكراده في الإثنين مايو 16, 2011 2:33 am

    Incubator care
    New born babies take time to accustom to the external environment specially if they one premature and low birth weight. As they are on risk to develop hypoxia, hypothermia and other many associated adverse conditions, need special care and attention.
    The term incubation has derived from a latin word ‘Incubare’ that means “lie on”. Incubation is the process of providing an environment to keep them worm and suitable for their development as birds sit on their egg to hatch them.
    Similarly, Incubator is an apparatus used to care the premature, low birth weight and very
    sick babies in thermo neutral environment.
    Application of oil or liqud paraffins to the skin of the babies either inside the incubator or outside reduces the heat loss by 50%. If is very essential for baby to obtain an ideal environment for growth and development, basically survival itself.
    Thus about one third of nursery beds schedule comprises of incubators.
    Indications: Indication of incubation care depends on ability of neonates to sustain and
    adopt in external environment. But generally all premature babies, babies with low birth weight
    (<1000g) may be stable, hypothermic child (<32˚c), Sick children need luenbotor and its care.
    Frequently incubator is used to transport babies from one place to another, like referral to another hospital, within the hospital for various investigations e.g. CT scan & MRI. Neonates who need close observation are also kept in the incubators.
    Purpose: Main purpose of keeping and caring a neonate in incubator are
    1.Maintenance of thermoneutral ambient temperature
    2.Provision of desired humidity and oxygenation
    3.Observation of very sick neonates
    4.Isolation newborn babies from infections, unfavorable external environment and
    stimulations.
    Types:
    Incubation can be of various types
    1.
    Portable and non portable– Portable incubation can be used to shift the patient to
    another area of hospital as needed.
    2.
    Open box type- It is also known as Armstrong, here neonate is keep on the Plexiglas bassinet to keep unstable babies or newly born babies. A radiant warmer can be attached if child needs. The main disadvantage of this type of incubator is it can not maintain thermoneutral environment if lids are open frequently. Despite it can not filter the air and neonate is directly in the contact with external environment. It has only advantage that neonate in this incubator can be observed well and can be handled easily.
    3. Close type - Close type of incubator has special function to concentrate fresh air after filtration. It prevents water loss from radiation. As neonate remain inside the box the risk f infection is minimum.
    4. Double walled- The incubator has two walls. As air is not good conductor of heat the
    incubator prevents heat and fluid loss.
    5. Servo control incubator- It is best type of incubator and most frequently desired. It is automatically operated and set the parameters as per need of neonate. Skin sensor or thermo capsule is affixed with the abdominal wall of neonate midway between umbilicus and xiphisternum, and incubator is set to maintain desired temperature at 360c. The skin sensor feeds the information regarding skin temperature to the thermostat which automatically regulates the output of heat to maintain the desired temperature of neonate. It is also provided with inbuilt audio visual alarm for set temperature with upper and lower desired temperature, air flow and probe failure. Inbuilt heat monitor provides information regarding the amount of heat generated by incubator to keep the neonate warm. When the heater output reading is minimal or nil it suggests that neonate is capable of generating enough metabolic rate of heat to keep himself warm and neonate can be taken out of incubator or nursed in open cot .Recent models of incubator have arming systems which even suggests the actions to be performed.
    Ideal settings of incubator-
    Setting of incubator depends upon various parameters of neonate as well as environment e.g. gestational age, maturity, body temperature and presence or absence of disease. Recommended Nursery temperature is 28-300c. The incubator temperature should be such as it will maintain the temperature of neonate between 35-370c.
    A humidity of 60-70% is sufficient under most circumstances.
    Oxygen delivery inside the incubator depends on wellbeing and ability of neonate to adapt in external environment but 7-10 lit/min of Oxygen provides adequate oxygen to the neonate unless neonate has some pathology.
    Procedure-
    Warm and oxygenate the incubator as you receive the message of expected arrival of
    neonate, generally 10-15 minutes earlier.
    Check the physician’s order.
    Explain the needs of incubator care to the parents of neonate.
    Adjust the incubation parameters and maintain, follow the chart.
    Remove the cloths of the neonate and place inside the incubator.
    Provide meticulous care as long neonate remains in side.
    Continue care through port hole.
    Report to the doctor if baby is not maintaining the temperature, generally after two
    abnormal readings.
    Do not bring the neonate out without justifiable cause.
    Document time and condition of the neonate.
    In open care system, cover the baby with warm cloths or to minimize heat loss.
    Cleaning and sterilization-
    When the incubator is occupied, it should be cleaned daily with mild detergent. Humidifier
    chamber must be emptied and cleaned daily, fill with fresh distilled water.
    After seven days neonate should be sifted to another incubator and used incubator should be cleaned with antiseptic solution.1-2 ml of Glacial acetic acid or vinegar can be added to water in the humidifier to prevent bacterial growth.
    Special considerations-
    1. It is important that the incubator should not interfere with observation of the neonate and
    quality of care.
    2. Sensory stimuli like light and pain should be kept to the minimal.
    3. When neonate develops fever, the incubator modes have to be changed in normal modes.
    4. When the neonate is nursed in prone position, skin sensor is placed over the flank and it
    should not touch the bed.
    5. The neonate in the incubator should not be bathed.
    6. The daily linens should be kept within the Nursery to keep warm.
    7. No alarm should be ignored.
    Conclusion-
    Almost all preterm and low birth babies need incubator care. Unless baby is extremely small or
    sick open care system I preferable upon closed system because of easy access to the babies.
    References:-
    1. Singh Meharwan, Care of Newborn, 6th edition, 2004, published by Narinder K Singh,
    new Delhi-01.
    2. Clinical Nursing Protocol, Nursing Service, Christian Medical College, Vellore.
    3. Prajapati Badev, Essential procedures in Pediatrics, 1st edition, 2003, Jaypee brother’s
    medical publication, New Delhi.
    4. Gupte Suraj, The text book of Pediatrics, 7th edition, 1996, Jaypee brother’s medical
    publication, New Delhi


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    رد: Incubator care الحاضنه

    مُساهمة  Admin في الخميس مايو 19, 2011 3:43 am

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