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    ANGINA PECTORIS

    شاطر
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    ممرض جامعي
    المشــــــــرف العــــــــــــــــام

    عدد المساهمات : 189
    تاريخ التسجيل : 18/02/2011
    العمر : 27

    ANGINA PECTORIS

    مُساهمة  ممرض جامعي في السبت فبراير 26, 2011 12:06 am

    Angina Pectoris
    View Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease) Slideshow Pictures
    Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease) Slideshow Pictures Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease) Slideshow Pictures
    Heart-Healthy Foods Slideshow Pictures Heart-Healthy Foods Slideshow Pictures

    * Angina Pectoris Overview
    * Angina Pectoris Causes
    * Angina Pectoris Symptoms
    * When to Seek Medical Care
    * Exams and Tests
    * Angina Pectoris Treatment
    * Self-Care at Home
    * Medical Treatment
    * Medications
    * Surgery
    * Next Steps
    * Follow-up
    * Prevention
    * Outlook
    * Support Groups and Counseling
    * For More Information
    * Web Links
    * Synonyms and Keywords
    * Authors and Editors
    * Viewer Comments: Angina - How Was Diagnosis Established

    Angina Pectoris Overview

    If you are having pain or pressure in the middle of your chest, left neck, left shoulder, or left arm, go immediately to the nearest hospital emergency department. Do not drive yourself. Call 911 for emergency transport.

    Angina, or angina pectoris, is the medical term used to describe the temporary chest discomfort that occurs when the heart is not getting enough blood.

    * The heart is a muscle (myocardium) and gets its blood supply from the coronary arteries.

    * Blood carries the oxygen and nutrients the heart muscle needs to keep pumping.

    * When the heart does not get enough blood, it can no longer function at its full capacity.

    * When physical exertion, strong emotions, extreme temperatures, or eating increase the demand on the heart, a person with angina feels temporary pain, pressure, fullness, or squeezing in the center of the chest or in the neck, shoulder, jaw, upper arm, or upper back. This is angina, especially if the discomfort is relieved by removing the stressor and/or taking sublingual (under the tongue) nitroglycerin.

    * The discomfort of angina is temporary, meaning a few seconds or minutes, not lasting hours or all day.

    An episode of angina is not a heart attack. Having angina means you have an increased risk of having a heart attack.

    * A heart attack is when the blood supply to part of the heart is cut off and that part of the muscle dies (infarction).

    * Angina can be a helpful warning sign if it makes the patient seek timely medical help and avoid a heart attack.

    * Prolonged or unchecked angina can lead to a heart attack or increase the risk of having a heart rhythm abnormality. Either of those could lead to sudden death.

    Time is very important in angina.

    * The more time the heart is deprived of adequate blood flow (ischemia), and thus oxygen, the more the heart muscle is at risk of heart attack or heart rhythm abnormalities.

    * The longer the patient experiences chest pain from angina, the more the heart muscle is at risk of dying or malfunctioning.

    Not all chest pain is angina. Pain in the chest can come from a number of causes, which range from not serious to very serious.

    * For example, chest pain can be caused by:

    o acid reflux (gastroesophageal reflux disease, GERD),

    o upper respiratory infection,

    o asthma, or

    o sore muscles and ligaments in the chest (chest wall pain)

    * If chest pain is severe and/or recurrent, the patient should see a healthcare provider.

    * Go to a hospital emergency department if the patient has any of the following with chest pain:

    o Other symptoms such as:

    + sweating,

    + weakness,

    + faintness,

    + numbness or tingling, or

    + nausea

    o Pain that does not go away after a few minutes

    o Pain that is of concern in any way
    ....Angina Pectoris Causes

    Angina is classified as one of the following two types:

    * Stable angina

    * Unstable angina

    Stable Angina

    Stable angina is the most common angina, and the type most people mean when they refer to angina.

    * People with stable angina usually have angina symptoms on a regular basis. The episodes occur in a pattern and are predictable.

    * For most people, angina symptoms occur after short bursts of exertion.

    * Stable angina symptoms usually last less than five minutes.

    * They are usually relieved by rest or medication, such as nitroglycerin under the tongue.

    Unstable Angina

    Unstable angina is less common. Angina symptoms are unpredictable and often occur at rest.

    * This may indicate a worsening of stable angina, but sometimes the first time a person has angina it is already unstable.

    * The symptoms are worse in unstable angina - the pains are more frequent, more severe, last longer, occur at rest, and are not relieved by nitroglycerin under the tongue.

    * Unstable angina is not the same as a heart attack, but it warrants an immediate visit to the healthcare provider or a hospital emergency department. The patient may need to be hospitalized to prevent a heart attack.

    If the patient has stable angina, any of the following may indicate worsening of the condition:

    * An angina episode that is different from the regular pattern

    * Being awakened at night by angina symptoms

    * More severe symptoms than usual

    * Having angina symptoms more often than usual

    * Angina symptoms lasting longer than usual

    Coronary Heart Disease

    The most common cause for the heart not getting enough blood is coronary heart disease, also called coronary artery disease.

    * In this disease, the coronary arteries become blocked, narrowed, or otherwise damaged.

    * They can no longer supply the heart with all of the blood it needs.

    Most cases of coronary heart disease are caused by atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

    * Atherosclerosis is a condition in which a fatty substance/cholesterol builds up inside the blood vessels.

    * These buildups are called plaques, and they can block blood flow through the vessels partially or completely. Multiple risk factors, particularly:

    o diabetes,

    o high blood pressure,

    o smoking,

    o high cholesterol, and

    o genetic predisposition may accelerate this build up.

    Coronary Artery Spasm

    Another cause of unstable angina is coronary artery spasm.

    * Spasm of the muscles surrounding the coronary arteries causes them to narrow or close off temporarily. This blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle for a brief time, causing angina symptoms.

    * This is called variant angina or Prinzmetal angina.

    * This is not the same as atherosclerosis, although some people have both conditions.

    * The symptoms often come on at rest (or during sleep) and without apparent cause.

    * Cocaine use/abuse can cause significant spasm of the coronary arteries and lead to a heart attack.

    Other Causes

    Other causes of angina symptoms include the following:

    * Blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot or by compression from something outside the artery

    * Inflammation or infection of the coronary arteries

    * Injury to one or more coronary arteries

    *

    Poor functioning of the tiny blood vessels of the heart (microvascular angina)

    When a person has underlying atherosclerosis, spasm, or damage to the coronary arteries, angina symptoms usually are set off by one of the following triggers:

    * Physical exertion or exercise

    * Emotional stress

    * Exposure to cold

    * Decreased oxygen content in the air you breathe (for example flying in an airplane or at high altitudes)

    * Using a stimulant such as caffeine or smoking cigarettes (which lowers the amount of oxygen in the blood)

    Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis and Angina

    Risk factors for atherosclerosis and angina include the following. Some of these are reversible.

    * High blood pressure (hypertension)

    * High levels of cholesterol and other fats in the blood

    * Diabetes

    * Smoking

    * Male gender

    * Inactive (sedentary) lifestyle

    * Family history of coronary heart disease

    * Aging

    * Regular use of stimulants, especially nicotine, cocaine, or amphetamines: Other stimulants include theophyllines, inhaled beta-agonists, caffeine, diet pills, and decongestants.

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    * 12
    * 13
    * 14
    * 15
    * 16
    * 17

    * « Previous Page
    * Glossary
    * Next Page »
    ..................Angina Pectoris Causes

    Angina is classified as one of the following two types:

    * Stable angina

    * Unstable angina

    Stable Angina

    Stable angina is the most common angina, and the type most people mean when they refer to angina.

    * People with stable angina usually have angina symptoms on a regular basis. The episodes occur in a pattern and are predictable.

    * For most people, angina symptoms occur after short bursts of exertion.

    * Stable angina symptoms usually last less than five minutes.

    * They are usually relieved by rest or medication, such as nitroglycerin under the tongue.

    Unstable Angina

    Unstable angina is less common. Angina symptoms are unpredictable and often occur at rest.

    * This may indicate a worsening of stable angina, but sometimes the first time a person has angina it is already unstable.

    * The symptoms are worse in unstable angina - the pains are more frequent, more severe, last longer, occur at rest, and are not relieved by nitroglycerin under the tongue.

    * Unstable angina is not the same as a heart attack, but it warrants an immediate visit to the healthcare provider or a hospital emergency department. The patient may need to be hospitalized to prevent a heart attack.

    If the patient has stable angina, any of the following may indicate worsening of the condition:

    * An angina episode that is different from the regular pattern

    * Being awakened at night by angina symptoms

    * More severe symptoms than usual

    * Having angina symptoms more often than usual

    * Angina symptoms lasting longer than usual

    Coronary Heart Disease

    The most common cause for the heart not getting enough blood is coronary heart disease, also called coronary artery disease.

    * In this disease, the coronary arteries become blocked, narrowed, or otherwise damaged.

    * They can no longer supply the heart with all of the blood it needs.

    Most cases of coronary heart disease are caused by atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

    * Atherosclerosis is a condition in which a fatty substance/cholesterol builds up inside the blood vessels.

    * These buildups are called plaques, and they can block blood flow through the vessels partially or completely. Multiple risk factors, particularly:

    o diabetes,

    o high blood pressure,

    o smoking,

    o high cholesterol, and

    o genetic predisposition may accelerate this build up.

    Coronary Artery Spasm

    Another cause of unstable angina is coronary artery spasm.

    * Spasm of the muscles surrounding the coronary arteries causes them to narrow or close off temporarily. This blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle for a brief time, causing angina symptoms.

    * This is called variant angina or Prinzmetal angina.

    * This is not the same as atherosclerosis, although some people have both conditions.

    * The symptoms often come on at rest (or during sleep) and without apparent cause.

    * Cocaine use/abuse can cause significant spasm of the coronary arteries and lead to a heart attack.

    Other Causes

    Other causes of angina symptoms include the following:

    * Blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot or by compression from something outside the artery

    * Inflammation or infection of the coronary arteries

    * Injury to one or more coronary arteries

    *

    Poor functioning of the tiny blood vessels of the heart (microvascular angina)

    When a person has underlying atherosclerosis, spasm, or damage to the coronary arteries, angina symptoms usually are set off by one of the following triggers:

    * Physical exertion or exercise

    * Emotional stress

    * Exposure to cold

    * Decreased oxygen content in the air you breathe (for example flying in an airplane or at high altitudes)

    * Using a stimulant such as caffeine or smoking cigarettes (which lowers the amount of oxygen in the blood)

    Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis and Angina

    Risk factors for atherosclerosis and angina include the following. Some of these are reversible.

    * High blood pressure (hypertension)

    * High levels of cholesterol and other fats in the blood

    * Diabetes

    * Smoking

    * Male gender

    * Inactive (sedentary) lifestyle

    * Family history of coronary heart disease

    * Aging

    * Regular use of stimulants, especially nicotine, cocaine, or amphetamines: Other stimulants include theophyllines, inhaled beta-agonists, caffeine, diet pills, and decongestants.

    * 1
    * 2
    * 3
    * 4
    * 5
    * 6
    * 7
    * 8
    * 9
    * 10
    * 11
    * 12
    * 13
    * 14
    * 15
    * 16
    * 17

    * « Previous Page
    * Glossary
    * Next Page »

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الخميس ديسمبر 13, 2018 5:53 pm